Odd Ailment Hits Troops
"TOKYO, (AP)—A strange illness for which no sure cure has
been found has broken out among United Nations forces in Korea,
Gen. Ridgway's headquarters said today. Brig. Gen. William E.
Shambora, surgeon of the Far East Command, said the mysterious
malady strikes suddenly and is characterized by fever and a
headache. These symptoms are common in the early stages of
several known infectious diseases. Sulfa and antibiotics have
failed to stem the disease, Shambora said. The malady is
strikingly similar to that reported by the Japanese among their
Manchurian troops in 1939. The Japanese called the disease
"epidemic hemorrhagic fever." They believe it is caused by a
tiny virus carried by field mice and transmitted to man by
mites. Shambora said some patients recover quickly while others
develop further symptoms. These include hemorrhages under the
skin, around the eyes and the internal organs". - Lock Haven
Express (newspaper), Lock Haven, PA, Thursday, November 8, 1951,
- Page Contents
- Hemorrhagic Fever in Korea
- Outbreak of Fever
- Specialty Hospitals
- Esteemed Virologists and Epidemiologists
- 1986/2005 Outbreak
- Persistent Illness
- Bobby Ray Breeden
- John F. "Jack" Goedeke Sr.
- Harold Jack Elbon
- 7th ID Report - 1953
- Ho Wang Lee Research
- Hemorrhagic Fever Fatalities
- Bios of Fatalities
- Col. Constance J. Moore Article (Army Nursing)
- Nurses Who Cared for Hemorrhagic Patients
Contact the KWE
On this page of the Korean War Educator our readers can find the
names of many of the fatalities caused by hemorrhagic fever.
We have found no government compilation of hemorrhagic fever fatalities by name.
To add information, comments, corrections, fatality names and bio information to
this page, contact Lynnita.
We would love to hear from Korean War hemorrhagic fever survivors
and any medical personnel and staff that cared for the hemorrhagic
Hemorrhagic Fever in Korea
Outbreak of Fever
Over the course of the Korean War, more than 3,000 UN troops
became ill with hemorrhagic fever, and the mortality rate was ten
percent and higher. (There was no known cure and it was not widely
known what it was or what caused it.) American servicemen
experienced a range of symptoms ranging from fever, headache,
chills, loss of appetite, vomiting, internal bleeding, and renal
failure. Fatalities could occur within one to two weeks of
contracting the illness.
Shortly after the Battle
of Chipyong-ni, Capt. Claude A. Scott, battalion surgeon of the 1st
Battalion, 23rd Infantry Regiment, was the first man evacuated from
the battalion because he was critically ill with hemorrhagic fever.
In 1951, the pick-up of soldiers affected by hemorrhagic fever became
so overwhelming that helicopters in the 8193rd Helicopter Detachment
needed supplemental aircraft to retrieve the sick. An L-19
with an improvised litter built of one-inch padded plywood was
attached to the helicopter unit. According to a 1951 After
Action Report, this L-19 greatly reduced the time that a stricken
serviceman was picked up and taken to the hemorrhagic fever MASH, no
doubt saving lives. The report recommended that another L-19 be sent
to complement the first one.
The number of men stricken with this mysterious illness continued
to grow as 1951-52 progressed. In 1952, the 8228th MASH, 48th Surgical Unit was mentioned
in the Annual Report of Medical Services Activities, 7th Infantry
Division. The 8228th MASH was a hospital in Seoul that was reserved for
personnel with hemorrhagic fever and cold injuries (Eighth U.S. Army
Cold Injury Treatment Center). Established in April of 1952, that year
the hospital had 2,237 admissions (Army = 1,625; Navy = 9; USMC -
183; Air Force = 6; allied and neutral military personnel = 223) and
other = 191). The illness continued to strike military personnel,
so much so that the 382nd General Hospital, a rehab hospital for
hemorrhagic fever patients, upgraded its bed capacity to 1,000.
Nurses at the 11th Evacuation hospital were among the first to use
an artificial kidney machine to treat patients with hemorrhagic
Esteemed Virologists and Epidemiologists
Some of the United States' most learned virologists and
epidemiologists were involved in the study of the strange fever
outbreak. Dr. Joseph Edward Smadel
(1909-1963), a virologist and civilian researcher for the Army, led
a team of Army scientists in a study of the hemorrhagic fever
breakout in Korea. Their mission was to study the cause,
transmission, prevention, and treatment of the strange disease. Smadel
found out that from April to December of 1952, 46 out of 828
patients diagnosed with the fever died (fatality rate of 5.6
Among Smadel's colleagues was Capt. Robert Wayne McCollum
Jr. (1925-2010). After serving in the US Army Medical Corps
from 1952 to 1954, he went on to pioneer studies into the nature and
spread of polio, hepatitis and mononucleosis at Yale School of
Medicine. For nearly a decade he was Dean of Dartmouth School
Medical Center. In 1951-52, noted endocrinologist and
physiologist Dr. William Francis "Fran" Ganong Jr. (1924-2007)
served as Lieutenant, then Captain in the Army Medical Corps in
Japan and Korea, and helped to set up the mobile army surgical
hospital (MASH) to treat patients with hemorrhagic fever. He
later published several scientific papers about the Korean
Dr. Sheldon Edward Greisman, a New York University College of
Medicine graduate, volunteered for Army service while serving as
chief resident at New York's Bellevue Hospital. Dr. Greisman was
assigned to the 48th MASH unit in Korea during the Korean War. He
investigated Korean epidemic hemorrhagic fever in combat troops. He
also served as a MASH unit psychiatrist.
Dr. George Schreiner, a 1946 graduate of Georgetown University
Medical School, was a renowned nephrologist. When the Korean War
broke out, he volunteered for the Army and was posted to the
Washington Veterans Administration where he worked on the artificial
kidney. A year followed at Walter Reed Army Hospital to begin
research into the causes of kidney failure in Korean and US soldiers
in the field. Briefly posted to the hospital ships in Pusan, Korea,
he observed soldiers returning from the Han valley with skin and
hemorrhagic fever associated with acute kidney failure. In
1951, he was invited to become Chief of a new Division of Nephrology
at Georgetown University Hospital by Laurence H. Kyle (Endocrinology
and Metabolism) and Harold Jeghers (Chief of Medicine) in a largely
Boston-trained Department of Medicine, as the first Georgetown
graduate to hold a leadership position in the medical school. He
remained there for the next 35 years.
It was not until 1978, long after the cease fire, that the virus
that caused hemorrhagic fever was identified. It was
discovered in a field mouse found near the Hantan River and was from
then on known as the "Hantavirus". This virus transferred to
humans via mouse droppings, mouse urine, and mouse saliva--primarily
droppings. The virus could remain on dry droppings for long
periods of time. During the Korean War, United Nations troops
came in contact with mice that were searching for food and trying to
keep out of the weather. Mice crawled into bunkers, tents,
food supplies, clothing, and sleeping bags.
Dr. Ho-Wang Lee of South Korea discovered the Hantaan and Seoul
viruses, which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. He also
identified which rodents harbor the viruses, the way the viruses are
transmitted from rodents to humans, and developed an effective
vaccine that has significantly reduced the incidence of this
disease. Some of his research is posted on this page of the
Unfortunately, as late as 1986 American Marines stationed in
Korea contracted hemorrhagic fever, with fourteen Marines suffering
from the virus. The Marines were among 3,754 Marines who
participated in a joint US/ROK training exercise from September 7
through November 15, 1986. Two of the fourteen died of severe
renal failure and shock. One 19-year old Marine developed
hemorrhagic fever on November 5. For the next five days the
illness continued, and then 24 hours after that he died in Seoul.
The second Marine died on Okinawa in November of 1986. All
Marines that suffered from the fever had been quartered in the
Unchon area. This outbreak was the largest cluster of fever
victims among US personnel in Korea since the Korean War.
[Source: "Outbreak of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome Among
U.S. Marines in Korea" (AD-A228 197)]
In 1994 the U.S. Army reported eight cases of hemorrhagic fever,
with one fatality. In 1995 three American soldiers contracted
the fever. In 2002 the Korea National Institute of Health
reported 336 cases, including one death. Victims were mostly
area farmers and soldiers. From January to August 2003 there
were 82 cases of hemorrhagic fever. A U.S. soldier stationed at Camp Hovey, Dongducheon, was
diagnosed with hemorrhagic fever on October 27, 2005. On November 8-9, 2005, two
soldiers from Camp Casey, Dongducheon, were also diagnosed with
hemorrhagic fever. On November 13, 2005, another soldier from
the same unit at Camp Casey was confirmed to have the fever.
[Source: CDC Dispatch, Vol. 15, No. 11, November 2009]
While severe symptoms of hemorrhagic fever could kill someone in
a matter of days, health complications from those recovering from
hemorrhagic fever could last for months.
Bobby Ray Breeden
After contracting the illness, Korean War veteran Bobby Ray
Breeden of Texas (1929-2020) was in and out of hospitals in Korea,
Japan, Hawaii, California and Texas for 135 days. Prior to being
drafted in the Army and contracting hemorrhagic fever, Bobby was a
healthy high school graduate who had been drafted to play
professional baseball by Kansas City.
John F. "Jack" Goedeke Sr.
John F. "Jack" Goedeke Sr. of Easton, Maryland, was a BAR-man in
the 24th Infantry Division when the entire division was sent to
Korea on July 1, 1953. He told the Star-Democrat
newspaper staff (June 25, 2000, pg. 26):
My most threatening time turned out to be my stint in Yangu
Valley. In mid-September 1954, I contracted what was first
thought to be malaria. I was flown by helicopter to the 11th
Evac hospital near Seoul where I was diagnosed as having
hemorrhagic fever, a potentially fatal fever. I normally weighed
175 pounds and I had lost 40 pounds in just over a week. After
about six weeks of treatment in the hospital, I was discharged
and very thankful to the good Lord for having my health back. I
recently read that hemorrhagic fever is related in some obscure
way to the Eboli virus. I was very lucky. I was discharged from
the army on December 8, 1954 — exactly two years and one day
from the day I was inducted. I was two years older and
considerably wiser from the experiences of the past 24 months."
Harold Jack Elbon
48th MASH Hospital, November 1953
[KWE Note: All credit to this article goes to Harold Jack Elbon,
who has also published the book, My Journey-West Virginia to
Korea and Back to W.V.u.]
"Barely awake, and completely drenched in cold
perspiration. I knew I was running a high fever and clumsily
struggled to unzip my sleeping bag before losing consciousness.
Later, someone was shaking me and saying “If you want breakfast
you’d better get your a** outta’ bed”. My reply was “Where am
I”? “Man, you’re a soldier in the US Army and we are in Munson,
Korea“. Struggling to get dressed, and staggering toward the
Mess Hall. I smelled greasy frying bacon and it made me stop and
I went on sick call and told the doctor it felt like the Flu. He
took my temperature and blood pressure and carefully examined
the roof of my mouth. His eyes got big, and he asked me to raise
my arms and his eyes widened again. I looked under my arm and
saw that my side torso was covered with red spots. He told me to
go in the next room and lie down on the bed. I heard him on the
telephone requesting a helicopter. He was sending me to the 48th
Mash Hospital for evaluation. “May I return to my area to get my
personal belongings?” Absolutely not, you are now under
quarantine until the hospital finds out what’s wrong with you.”
I was carried out to the helicopter on a stretcher and strapped
on the exterior of the helicopter. It was one of those one man
jobs with a plastic bubble like the one in the show MASH. I
remember looking back at the rear rotor and thinking…if that
thing comes off it will be like a buzz saw and bisect me.
Looking over the side at the rice paddies surrounded by
mountains, I thought how beautiful and peaceful it looks from up
We landed at the 48th MASH Hospital. They carried me inside and
the Army nurse had me get on the scales. Then she took me by
wheelchair to my assigned bed. I suggested I wasn’t sick enough
to be in a hospital that it felt like I was getting the Flu.
“The doctors will be in tomorrow morning and will determine if
you are sick enough to be kept a few days for observation” she
politely but sternly replied.
About an hour later, they brought a Korean (ROK) soldier in and
put him in the bed beside mine. He knew some English words
and I knew a little Korean. He put his hand at the back of his
neck and said Opo? I replied Opo which means hurts. Then he put
his right hand under his rib cage and asked Opo? I put my under
my rib cage and pressed and it hurt. Later I learned that our
livers were enlarged. The Korean patient said “American doctors
are sissy doctors, and am not sick enough to be in a hospital, I
should be back on the front lines”. I told him I felt the same
way. The nurse returned to take my temperature. She had me drink
water, and changed my cold damp sheets.
The next morning, lying there with my eyes half closed, I
watched the Medics take the ROK soldier’s vital signs Suddenly
he stiffened, turned a purplish red color and DIED!!! As they
rushed him out of the room, I thought about our short
conversation comparing symptoms the night before, and thought
“Maybe I am sick”.
When the medics returned, they took my vitals and a doctor
prescribed Quinine and a shot of penicillin. Meanwhile more
soldiers were brought in with the same symptoms. My meals
consisted of ½ slice of toast, 1 cup of pear juice, and I cup of
tea, 7 days a week because that’s all I could keep down.
Each day was the same. My temperature went up at night and the
nurses kept waking me to drink water. They explained I might go
into convulsions if I didn’t replace the water I was losing. God
bless them, they worked hard and really cared. The number of
patients grew in alarming numbers to about 100. Somebody died
every few days. After several days of treatments of Quinine and
penicillin, they concluded it wasn’t Malaria.
Finally, the Army medical staff thought this fever and rash may
be an Oriental disease, and they brought in a consulting
Japanese doctor. He asked if I had seen any rats in Munsan. He
suspected the North Koreans and/or the Chinese had infected rats
and they had come over to the American side. We had mess halls
and the rats likely had invaded us and transmitted Hemorrhagic
Fever via fleas, or mosquitos. I told him, I haven’t seen any
rats, but I have been bitten by mosquitos”. He explained, “It is
similar to the Bubonic Plague that killed hundreds of thousands
of people in Europe during the Middle Ages”.
Each day began with 4 shots in my buttocks and removal of blood
from my arms and fingers. After 3 weeks, my arms looked like a
junkie’s. My hips were so caked that the nurses could no longer
give me 4 injections. They would push very hard to get one in
and then unscrew the syringe and screw on another one.
Surprisingly, my diet of ½ slice of toast, 1 cup of tea, and 1
cup of pear juice did not get boring. Thankfully, I could keep
it down. Thanksgiving Day arrived and they brought a large tray
of Turkey and all the trimmings and put it on my bedside table.
I looked at it and began to cry like a baby. They knew I
couldn’t eat it but they prepared it anyway, so I could witness
the American tradition. I felt the hospital staff truly cared
for me. Sobs were heard from all over the hospital. I wondered
if some patients thought it was their last supper, and it was. I
still cry when I think about that 1953 Thanksgiving.
It seemed as though someone in that ward would die almost every
night. Before I went to sleep, I prayed that God would give me
one more day, and wondered if I would wake up the next morning.
My weight had plummeted and I looked like a thin prisoner of
I spent the long days reliving my life from early childhood,
from life during the depression, to being a teenager during
World War II. I even replayed football and basketball games in
Both my mother and sister had similar dreams on the same night
that I was in an Army Hospital in Korea. The next day my mother
called someone in the US Government and they called the Red
Cross. They were able to track me down to the 48th MASH
Hospital. A few days later, a Chaplain came to my bedside and
sat down. He brought some stationary and would not leave until I
wrote a letter to my mother and sister. I asked, “How do you
write a letter to your mother and sister and tell them you are
dying?” The Chaplain said, “Tell them the truth and that you
love them and ask them to pray for you.
My mother and sister had the church that I had grown up in, the
First Baptist Church of Webster Springs, WV, and many of the
citizens of that small town praying for me.
One night shortly afterward I did not have a fever. The nurses
were overjoyed and told me I was one of the lucky ones because
about 85% of their patients died. “It wasn’t luck, I replied,
God answered the prayers of my mother, and sister, and the First
Baptist Church, and the good people of Webster Springs, WV”. If
any of the nurses and doctors that were at the 48th MASH
Hospital in Nov, of 1953, recognize this period, I would like to
thank them for the outstanding care they extended to me and the
The next morning on December 4th I was carried on a stretcher to
a plane that took me to a hospital in Japan for a month. Rest,
recuperation and gaining weight were on the agenda. When I was
taken off the plane in Japan, the Salvation Army Ladies were
there to ask if there was anything they could get for me. I
humbly asked “Do you have any milk?” They laughed and said sure.
They said almost every request from soldiers returning from
Korea was for milk because all we had in Korea was powdered
I spent about a month at the hospital at Tachikawa, Japan and
was given a wheelchair. The doctor told me not to walk until I
gained weight. I had 3 meals per day and snacks between meals.
My appetite vigorously returned.
Since my 3 year Army enlistment was due to expire on January
17th, the military flew me to Ft. Meade, Md. for discharge. A
few days past the 17th, I went to the office and complained. I
told the Commanding Officer that the 2nd semester at West
Virginia University would start in less than 2 weeks. I wanted
out in time to enroll. He explained my records had not caught up
with me and he could not discharge me without them. When I
expressed my dissatisfaction with his reply, he said “The Army
can extend your tour of duty indefinitely at the convenience of
I telephoned my mother and she called Senator Mathew M. Neely. A
few days later, I was ordered to the Commanding Office’s
quarters and was asked, “Do you have friends in high places?”
“No I replied, but my mother has”. He said he would give me an
Honorable Discharge but I had to sign an affidavit that my
discharge date was supposed to be January 17th. I abruptly
I was sent to the doctor who said “If you stay until your papers
arrive from Korea, you may be able to get disability benefits”.
I said “No, I feel okay and I don’t want to take the
government’s money unless I have to, besides, I want to get back
in college”. The doctor said he would give me a 0% Disability.
He said “That’s better than No Disability because it indicates
that something happened and I could submit a claim later if I
needed to”. I was discharged January 22, 1954. That turned out
to be a mistake. I was not as well as I thought and later needed
assistance, but the VA declined my request for help because they
couldn’t find my Medical Records. After 50 years of trying to
obtain my records, I wrote to Senator Robert Bird and he was
able to get them for me.
I was shocked to learn that the final diagnosis was” Infectious
Mononucleosis with Hepatitis and Jaundices”. My symptoms were
the same as the other patients who died, and when the fever
finally broke, the nurses said, “You are one of the lucky ones
you are going to live.” I am thankful that GOD healed me. But I
wonder about the diagnoses.
Was it given because they felt the doctors back home would not
know how to treat someone who had suffered with Hemorrhagic
Fever and the symptoms of Infectious Mononucleosis, Hepatitis
and Jaundice are similar? Was it because I survived? Was it
because they would not say “He was healed by God as a result of
all the prayers said by hundreds of people”?
It is well known that the 48th MASH handled Hemorrhagic Fever
Harold Jack Elbon, 326 Florida Ave., Saint
Cloud, Florida 34769
7th ID Report - (hemorrhagic fever section only)
Headquarters, 7th Infantry Division
Office of the Division Surgeon
Annual Report Medical Service Activities, 1953
(1) Control and Prevention of Hemorrhagic Fever
In January of 1953 a program for hemorrhagic fever control was
already in effect. This program included dipping of clothes in
miticide (51-R-300), spraying of quarters with lindane, and
During April, as part of this same program, a better degree of
control over the miticiding of clothing was obtained by
instituting the dipping of outer garments prior to issuance to
regimental clothing exchanges. This practice was continued
throughout the rest of the year.
Beginning with July further attempts were made to insure that
all US troops in this division wore miticided clothes. Since a
great deal of clothing was found to be laundered by indigenous
personnel rather than by the Quartermaster laundry, miticide
dips were made available for their use. The personnel were given
instructions as to the proper method of impregnation.
(2)Incidence of Hemorrhagic Fever
The division was in the Hemorrhagic Fever belt for the whole of
the year - both while on line and after being moved into reserve
to a less endemic area for the latter part of the year. The
incidence of the disease remained rather low throughout the
year. Cases of Hemorrhagic Fever began to occur in May when five
cases were recorded. In June eight cases occurred with the peak
being reached in July when nineteen cases were confirmed. The
disease dropped to three cases in August after which the disease
almost disappeared for the rest of the year.
Ho Wang Lee Research
In 1974, Ho Wang Lee of the Korea University completed a study of
Korean hemorrhagic fever. His research was prepared for the
Army Research and Development Group (Far East). He noted that
the first cases of the fever were reported in 1951 among U.S. forces
stationed in the Yunchun and Chulwon area. He said that there
were 2,804 total hospitalized cases of U.S. troops from 1951
to 1972. He provided the following figures:
|Year of Hospitalization
||Number of Cases
||Year of Hospitalization
||Number of Cases
Hemorrhagic Fever Fatalities (incomplete listing)
The government divided fatalities as "battle" or "non-battle".
The causes of non-battle deaths are sometimes findable, but when a
death is listed as "died of other causes", it is difficult to
determine which ones of those were caused by hemorrhagic fever.
This agonizing fever caused as much as 10-15% mortality among the
total cases diagnosed.
- Ankrom, 1Lt. Okay Maurice - died November 9, 1951
- Basquin, Pfc. Gerald Donald - died October 26, 1951
- Beres, Pfc. Alfred M. - died November 18, 1951
- Collier, Pfc. Toland James - died November 29, 1951
- Flinn, 1Lt. Robert Francis "Bob" - died October 9, 1951
- Hooper, Pfc. Robert Mullen - died August 22, 1951
- Johnson, Cpl. Donald Richard - died November 5, 1951
- Locklin, Cpl. John Hildred - died December 15, 1951
- Markitello, Pvt2 Louis - died December 16, 1951
- McNeil, Pfc. Francis Leonard - died December 7, 1951
- McPherson, MSgt. Ralph Arlin - died November 22, 1951
- Messer, Pfc. Harold Richard - died October 22, 1951
- Miller, Maj. Eugene Preston - died July 17, 1951
- Norris, Cpl George - died September 4, 1951
- Wiseman, Pfc. Donald Gilbert - died August 28, 1951
- Canavan, Pfc. John Patrick - died May 29, 1952
- Caughey, Pfc. William John - died June 12, 1952
- Enderson, Pfc. Raymond Arthur - died June 29, 1952
- Engelhardt, Pfc. James Nelson - died July 2, 1952
- Escabar, Cpl. Erasmo - died July 22, 1952
- Hill, 1Lt. George Edwin - died June 11, 1952
- Horne, Cpl. Arvel Cook - died June 27, 1952
- Johnson, Pfc. Walter Fair - died June 15, 1952
- Kiedrowski, Pfc. Edward - died June 15, 1952
- Martineau, Pfc. George Percy - died July 10, 1952
- Neufeld, Pfc. Donald Milton - died July 27, 1952
- Simon, Cpl. George Albert - died July 9, 1952 (also
listed as Siman)
- Stevens, Cpl. J.E. - died August 24, 1952
- Torres-Ramirex, Pfc. Emilio - died November 19, 1952
- Benoit, Pfc. Lionel V. - died October 27, 1953
- Bullens, Pfc. Hearl E. - died December 16, 1953
- Culmer, Pfc. Freddie Leon - died July 05, 1953
- Ellis, Cpl. David - died November 16, 1953
- Fair, Pfc. Robert Carl - died November 08, 1953
- Figel, Pfc. Ronald Andrew - died October 23, 1953
- Gusek, Pvt. Richard J. - died November 11, 1953
- Hampton, Pfc. Alfred - died October 30, 1953
- Johnson, Pfc. James Grant - died November 10, 1953
- Linton, Capt. Paul Melvin - died December 11, 1953
- Lloyd, Sfc. Harold Alvin - died November 9, 1953
- McReynolds, Sgt. Cornelius - died February 17, 1953
- Pendegrass, Pvt. William Jr. - died November 01,
- Smith, Pfc. Harold Walter - died November 30, 1953
- Sommer, Pfc. Kenneth Charles - died December 5, 1953
- Stiles, Pvt. Frank Eugene - died October 30, 1953
- Thomas, Pvt. Edwin - died December 14, 1953
- Tillou, Cpl. Everitt James - died October 12, 1953
- Winters, Pvt. Donald Edwin - died June 18, 1953
- Eagan, A2C John Joseph - died December 28, 1954
- Schafer, Pfc. Stanton Mayer - died January 09,
Bios of Hemorrhagic Fever Fatalities
Ankrom, 1Lt. Okey Maurice Jr.
Oke was born January 20, 1918, son of Okey Maurice Ankrom Sr.
(1885-1921) and Emma Ethelda Dulaney Ankrom (1891-1971).
His children were Oke, James and Mary Ankrom. His siblings
were Mrs. Robert C. (Alma Mae Ankrom) Buffam (1911-1982); Louie
Edward Ankrom (1912-1948) and Glenn A. Ankrom (1915-1964).
Okey Jr. was a member of Company B, 79th Engineer Construction
Battalion when he died in the 121st Evac. He is buried in
Odd Fellows Cemetery, Parkersburg, West Virginia.
Basquin, Pfc. Gerald Donald
Gerald was born on April 02, 1932, in Norfolk, Virginia, son
of Samuel Basquin and Alice Conner Basquin. He was serving
with the 1st Field Artillery Observation Battalion, Artillery,
when he died in the 121st Evacuation Hospital. He is
buried in Rowley Cemetery, Rowley, Iowa.
Benoit, Pfc. Lionel Victor
Lionel was born May 29, 1931, and was from Connecticut.
He was serving with the 461 Ordnance Ammunition Company, 67th
Ordnance Battalion. He was taken to the 11th Evacuation
Hospital when he developed hemorrhagic fever. He is buried
in All Hallows Cemetery, Moosup, Windham County, Connecticut.
Beres, Pfc. Alfred M.
Alfred was born April 29, 1928, in Cheektowaga, New York.
He was a member of Battery D, 15th Anti-Aircraft Artillery
Automatic Weapons Battalion, 7th Infantry Division. He was a son
of Joseph J. and Elizabeth Garus Beres. His siblings
(according to Findagrave) were: Chester F. Beres (1932-2015),
Edward J. Beres (1921-1994), Aloise J. Beres (1922-2005), Henry
V. Beres (1927-2007), Frank D. Beres (1934-2002), Joseph Beres
(died 1930), Joan Beres, Mrs. Edward J. (Stella M. Beres)
Majchrzak (1925-?) Irene M. Beres Gawron (1924-2011), and
Frances Beres Tidd. Alfred died in the 11th Evac Hospital
in Korea and is buried in Saint Stanislaus Roman Catholic
Bullens, Pfc. Hearl E.
Hearl was born May 1, 1931, in Harriman, Roane County,
Tennessee. He was serving in the Quartermaster Division
when he was evacuated to 48th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital.
He had just received his shipping orders to return to the United
States. He was a son of Oliver Lee Bullens (1885-1975) and
Sarah Catherine "Cassie" Bullens (1899-1980). His siblings
were Reba Bullens Dickey Walker (1925-2004), Geneva Bullens
Trout (1922-2003), Edith Bullens Hickey, Clifford Bullens, Ben
Bullens, Ruby Bullens Whitaker, Lee Bullens Jr., Otho James
Bullens, Andy "Jack" Bullens (1940-2019) and Mrs. Homer (Wanda)
Harmon. Hearl is buried in Harriman Cemetery.
Canavan, Pfc. John Patrick
John Patrick was born June 04, 1929, son of Michael Canavan
(1896-1987) and Mary Kilger Canavan (1904-1973). John was
a member of Company A, 13th Engineering Combat Battalion, 7th
Infantry Division when he died at the 8228th MASH. He is
buried in All Saints Catholic Cemetery and Mausoleum, Des
Caughey, Pfc. William John "Bill"
Bill was born February 1, 1930, and was from the Muskegon,
Michigan area. He fought at the PuKau River in Korea,
contracted hemorrhagic fever at the front line, and died before
he could be evacuated. He was serving with B Company, 1st
Battalion, 180th Infantry Regiment, 45th Infantry Division.
Bill is buried in Saint Marys Cemetery, Muskegon, Michigan.
Collier, Pfc. Toland James
Toland was born May 4, 1929, a son of Dr. Henry H. Collier
Sr. and Annie B. Gilliard Collier (died 1992). He was a
member of Company E, 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment, 1st
Cavalry Division. His siblings were Lucius "Lou" Edward
Collier Sr. (1924-2010), Dr. Henry H. Collier Jr., John Collier
Sr., Dr. Charles Nathan Collier (died 1989), Pastor Merrick
Collier, Ruby Collier Bryant, and Dr. Harold Roland Collier
(died 1975). Toland died in the 121st Evac Hospital in
Korea and is buried in Laurel Grove Cemetery South, Savannah,
Chatham County, Georgia.
Culmer, Pfc. Freddie Leon
Freddie was born September 2, 1929 in Florida. He was
serving in Battery D, l48th Field Artillery Battalion (105mm)
and died at the 48th MASH. He is buried in Miami City
Cemetery, Miami, Florida.
Eagan, A2C John Joseph Jr.
John Jr. was born December 24, 1929 in Pottsville,
Pennsylvania, son of John Joseph Eagan Sr. (1908-1991) and
Florence A. Mooney Eagan (1908-1982). His siblings were
Mrs. Evan (Rita Eagan) Kranzley (1931-2015) and Mrs. William
Joseph (Florence Catherine Eagan) Brehony (1936-2017).
John was serving with the 1993rd ASCS Mobile Communications
Squadron at Kimpo Air Base when he died at the 11th Evac
Hospital. He is buried in Calvary Cemetery, Mount Carbon,
Ellis, Cpl. David Francis
David was born January 26, 1934, in Cambridge, Middlesex
County, Massachusetts. He was serving with the 329th
Signal Reconnaissance Company, IX Corps when he was taken to
48th Surgical Hospital, where he died. David's mother was
Florence May Bushee Foss (later Faria) and William E. Gorse.
The surname Ellis is on David's birth certificate. His
siblings were Herbert Wilson Ellis, Marion Louise (Hattie Ellis)
Hawes, Robert Field Ellis, Raymond Lewis Ellis, Edward Ellis,
Richard James Ellis (Gorse) (later James Richard Curran). Edward
Joseph Ellis (Gorse) and Paul Arthur Ellis (Gorse). David
is buried in Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery, San Diego,
Enderson, Pfc. Raymond Arthur
Raymond was born July 1, 1928, son of Mattias Enderson
(1892-1956) and Alice Johnson Enderson (1891-1982). His
siblings were Herman Emil Enderson (1921-2013), Merle Enderson
(1923-1997), Ivan Artist Enderson (1925-2018), Alice Marie
(1932-1933) and Ivan Enderson. Raymond was serving with C
Battery, 21st AAA AW Battaltion, 25th Infantry Division.
He is buried in Mountain View Cemetery, Longmont, Colorado.
Engelhardt, Pfc. James Nelson
James was born June 09, 1932. He graduated from Port
Neches Groves High School, Port Neches, Texas. He was a
member of the 17th Ordnance Med. Maintenance Company when he
became ill with hemorrhagic fever and died in 8228 MASH.
He is buried in Glenwood Cemetery, Flint, Michigan.
Escabar, Cpl. Erasmo
Erasmo was born March 26, 1931. He was a member of C
Battery, 12th Field Artillery Battalion (155mm), 2nd Infantry
Division, when he died at the 11th Evacuation Hospital. He
is buried in Escobares Cemetery, Escobares, Texas.
Fair, Pfc. Robert Carl
Robert was born in Cleveland, Ohio. He was a member of
B Company, 5th RCT, when he died at the 48th MASH. No
further information has been found about him.
Figel, Pfc. Ronald Andrew
Ronald was born on May 16, 1934. He was serving with
the 303 Communications Recon Battalion when he contracted
hemorrhagic fever and died in the 48th Surgical Hospital, Seoul,
Korea. He is buried in Mountain View Cemetery, Auburn,
King County, Washington.
Flinn, 1Lt. Robert Francis "Bob"
Bob was born January 25, 1925 in New York, the son of World
War I veteran Francis Joseph Flinn (1897-1956), of Stony Brook,
New York. After finishing grade and high school, Bob
served in World War II, joining on January 22, 1943 in New York
City. He was appointed to the United States Military
Academy at West Point, graduating in 1950. In September of
1950 he was assigned as platoon leader of C Company, 65th
Engineer Combat Battalion. He contracted hemorrhagic fever
and was evacuated to a hospital near Seoul. He was
transferred to Tokyo Army Hospital, Japan, where he died at the
age of 26. He is buried in West Point Cemetery in New
Gusek, Pvt. Richard J.
No information on this veteran has been found to date.
Hampton, Pfc. Alfred
Alfred was born in Long Island City, New York. He was
serving with L Company, 15th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry
Division when he died at the 48th MASH.
Hill, 1Lt. George Edwin
George was born November 13, 1925, a son of Carl Hill Sr.
(1891-1980) and Edna Witt Hill (1894-1980). His siblings
were Carl Hill Jr. (1918-1978) and Mrs. Francis Clarkson
(Margaret Hill) Durkin. He was a World War II veteran.
In Korea he was a member of Headquarters and Service Company,
65th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division. He contracted
Hemorrhagic Fever and was taken to the 25th Evacuation Hospital
where he died on June 11, 1952. George is buried in Llano
Cemetery, Amarillo, Texas.
Hooper, Pfc. Robert Mullen Jr.
Robert was born on January 18, 1925, son of World War I
veteran Robert M. Hooper Sr. (1894-1963) and Mary Lou Williams
Hooper (1897-1990). Robert Jr. was a member of the 3rd
Antiaircraft Artillery AW Battalion, 3rd Infantry Division.
He died in the 121 Evac Hospital in Korea and is buried in
Ashley Heights Cemetery, Ashley Heights, North Carolina.
Horne, Cpl. Arvel Cook Jr.
Arvel was born October 12, 1927, son of Arvel Cook Horne Sr.
(1901-1968) and Una Belle Reed Horne (1904-1954). His
sister was Margaret Lee Horne Perkins (1923-1990). He was
serving with Battery B, Aircraft Artillery (Automatic Weapons)
Battalion, 7th Infantry Division, when he died at the 8228 MASH.
This World War II veteran is buried in Resthaven Memorial Park,
Princeton, West Virginia.
Johnson, Cpl. Donald Richard
Donald was born on April 8, 1929. He was from Ohio.
The KWE believes (but has not confirmed) that he was the son of
Robert B. Johnson (1883-1954) and Myrtle D. Hopkins Johnson, and
his siblings were (possibly) Lida May Heath (1920-2006) and
Herbert Johnson. Donald was serving with Company M, 3rd
Battalion, 14th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division when
he died at the 121st Evac Hospital. He is buried in Mentor
Municipal Cemetery, Mentor, Ohio.
Johnson, Pfc. James Grant
James was born July 18, 1933. He contracted hemorrhagic
fever while serving in Company A, 2nd Battalion, 38th Infantry
Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division. He is buried in Mount Tabor
Baptist Church Cemetery, Shumansville, Virginia.
Johnson, Pfc. Walter Fair
Walter was born November 22, 1930 and was from the Grand
Cane, Louisiana area. He was serving with the 14th
Infantry Regiment, G Company, 2nd Battalion, 25th Infantry
Division when he died at the 11th Evacuation Hospital. He
is buried in Friendship Cemetery, Grand Cane, Louisiana.
Kiedrowski, Pfc. Edward
Edward was born on July 8, 1927, a son of Joseph V.
Kiedrowski (1869-1953) and Magdalena Garski Kiedrowski
(1890-1965). His siblings were Florian Thomas (1911-1962),
Chester V. (1914-1975), twin infants Alexander and Dominic
(1915-1915), Regina (LeGros) (1916-1998), Alexander Valentine
(1918-1992), Emil Ambrose (1919-2011), Elizabeth M. (Szczesniak)
(1921-2019), Magdalen Celia (Conrad) (1023-2011), Rose Maryann
(Zink) 1924-2002) and Geraldine Laverne (Krolikowski)
(1931-2020) and seven half siblings. Edward was serving
with the 7th Marine Regiment, Company C, 1st Battalion, 1st
Marine Division, when he was wounded on May 28, 1952. He
then contracted hemorrhagic fever, was evacuated to the USS
Haven (AH-12) hospital ship, where he died. He is
buried in Saint Florian Catholic Cemetery, Hatley, Wisconsin.
Linton, Capt. Paul Melvin
Paul was from Essex County, Massachusetts. He was
serving in the 21st Ordnance Direct Support Company when he died
of acute hemorrhagic fever and died at the 44th MASH. The
35 year old was a World War II and Korean War veteran who
received the Distinguished Service Cross. He is buried in
Pine Grove Cemetery, Lynn, Massachusetts
Lloyd, Sfc. Harold Alvin
Harold was born September 23, 1926 in Dayton, Ohio, a son of
Arthur Lloyd and Clara Reinhart Lloyd. His siblings were
Thomas "Tommy" Lloyd (survivor of the Bataan Death March in
World War II), Robert Lloyd, Glenn Lloyd, Jack Lloyd, Helen
Lloyd and Betty Lloyd Perry. He was married to Jessie Orr
in New York, and they had one child, Theodore H. "Teddy" Lloyd,
who was only 14-months old when his father died in Korea, They
lived on Governor's Island, New York before he went to Korea. Theodore
now lives with his wife Sonja in Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania.
During the Vietnam War Theodore served with the 595th
Maintenance Company, 8th Army, and the 227th Maintenance Company
in South Korea from April 1973 to May 1974. Harold Lloyd
was a platoon sergeant, motorman and military
policeman in Korea. He was also the recipient of a Bronze Star
for meritorious service. He served in Company H, 2nd Battalion,
38th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division. He died of
hemorrhagic fever and is buried in Long Island National
Cemetery, East Farmingdale, New York. Jessie Orr Lloyd later
remarried and died on March 13, 2013.
Bronze Star Citation
Sergeant First Class Harold A.
Lloyd, RA39733005, Infantry, United States Army, Company "H",
38th Infantry Regiment, 2nd Infantry Division, distinguished
himself by meritorious service from 20 November 1952 to 9
November 1953. During that period Sergeant Lloyd served as
Patrol and Desk Sergeant, 2nd Military Police Company and
Platoon Leader, 81mm mortar section, Company "H", 38th Infantry
Regiment. As Desk Sergeant he displayed a complete
knowledge of administrative matters and worked long and arduous
hours to insure a high standard of operational efficiency.
His enthusiasm for his job and devotion to duty contributed
greatly to the effective operation of the section.
Sergeant Lloyd continuously displayed unusual coolness when fire
missions were required, setting an example that was directly
responsible for the high morale of the men under his command.
He continually displayed a high degree of initiative and sound
judgment which resulted in increased tactical proficiency.
The services rendered by Sergeant Lloyd reflect great credit
upon himself and the military service.
Locklin, Cpl. John Hildred
John was born October 10, 1927, a son of Hildred Locklin
(1903-1992) and Corine Jospehine Crayton Locklin (1908-2006).
John was a member of the 7th Cavalry Regiment, F Company, 2nd
Battalion. His siblings were Mrs. Robert Louis (Lillian
Marie Locklin) Prince (1926-2007), Cornelius Locklin
(1929-1935), Howard Lee Locklin, and Mrs. James Reginald (Ruby
Ray Locklin) Wheeler (1932-2006). John died in the Osaka
Army Hospital, Honshu, Japan, and is buried in Journeys End
Cemetery, Burkburnett, Wichita County, Texas.
Markitello, Pvt2 Louis
Louis was born on April 05, 1928, in Oakland, Alameda County,
California. He was a member of A Company, 1st Battalion,
35th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. He died in
the 21st Evac Hospital, Pusan, Korea, and is buried in Golden
Gate National Cemetery, San Bruno, California.
Martineau, Pfc. George Percy
George was born January 28, 1926, a son of World War I
veteran Lorenzo A. Martineau (1894-1985) and Margaret M. Wills
Martineau (1903-1985). His siblings were World War II
veteran Arthur (1924-2012), Elmere Kramer, Faye Quam, William,
Doris Margaret Markel (1936-2018), Frances Sather, Judy Hove,
Joyce Wosick, Wanda DuRain, Connie Bushaw (his youngest sister
who was five at the time of his death), Richmond E. l(1932-1939)
and Mary Louise Keney. In 1940, George and his family were
living in Eastman, North Dakota. During the Korean War
George was a wireman with H Company, 3rd Battalion, 7th Marines.
While on patrol from Hill 229 near the "Yoke", he contracted
hemorrhagic fever. He was admitted to Company E, 1st
Medical Battalion on July 05, 1952. The next day George
was evacuated to the 8228th MASH and died there on July 10,
1952. His body was accompanied home by James F. Frye and
he was buried in Pembina Cemetery, Pembina, North Dakota.
McNeil, Pfc. Francis
Francis was born December 30, 1927, in Santa Barbara,
California, a son of Francis Jesse "Frank" McNeil (1896-1970)
and Louise Emily Stickney McNeil (1895-1979). His sibling
was Robert Stickney McNeil. Francis Leonard was a member
of Company M, 3rd Battalion, 65th Infantry Regiment, 3rd
Infantry Division when he died at the 121st Evac Hospital of
hemorrhagic fever. He is buried in the San Luis IOOF
Cemetery, San Luis Obispo, California.
McPherson, MSgt. Ralph Arlin
Ralph was born May 7, 1924. He was a World War II
veteran. During the Korean War he was a member of Battery
C, 99th Field Artillery Battalion, 1st Cavalry Division.
He died in the 121st Evac Hospital and is buried in Knoxville
National Cemetery, Knoxville, Tennessee.
McReynolds, Sgt. Cornelius
Cornelius was born November 28, 1929, son of Cornelius
McReynolds. He was serving with A Battery, 82nd
Anti-Aircraft Artillery AW Battalion when he contracted
hemorrhagic fever and died in the 48th MASH. He is buried
in Lincoln Cemetery, Chicago, Illinois.
Messer, Pfc. Harold Richard
Harold was born on December 9, 1928, in Lockridge, Iowa.
He was a son of William H. Messer (1879-1943) and Mary Viola
Jeffrey Messer (1903-1999) of Iowa. He attended Lockridge
schools, was a member of the Baptist Church, and was formerly
empoyed by the Burlington Railroad. Harold was indicted in
the Army in November 6, 1950 in the third draft from Jefferson
County, Iowa. His siblings were Kenneth "Kenny" Wilbert
Messer (1937-2015), Carrie Messer Holloway, Elgie Holloway, Guy
Gilbert Messer (1924-2012), Archie T. Messer (1926-1993) and
Walter Messer. Harold is buried in Lockridge Cemetery,
Lockridge, Iowa. He was a member of A Battery, 61st Field
Artillery Battalion (105mm) when he contracted hemorrhagic
fever. He was evacuated to a Norwegian Mobile Army
Surgical Hospital, where he died. He is buried in
Lockridge Cemetery, Lockridge, Iowa.
Miller, Maj. Eugene Preston
Eugene was born April 19, 1913, in Bristol, Tennessee, son of
Eugene Wade Miller and Mary Kunhert Miller. A World War II
and Korean War veteran, Major Miller was married to Helen House
Miller of Ogden, Utah. He was a member of the 8202 KMAG
when he died at the 121st Evac Hospital. He is buried in
Ogden City Cemetery, Ogden, Utah.
Neufeld, Pfc. Donald Milton
Donald was born August 8, 1929, son of John "Jack" Benjamin
Neufeld (1897-1966) and Frances Alice Haseman Neufeld. He
had a sister, Mrs. William (Esther Frances Neufeld) Morgens
(1931-2017). Donald was serving with the 17th Ordnance
Medium Maintenance Company. He died of hemorrhagic fever
near Kumwha, Korea. Donald was from Cottonwood County,
Norris, Cpl George
George was born March 01, 1929. He was serving with the
64th Heavy Tank Battalion, 3rd Infantry Division when he died in
the 121st Evac Hospital. He is buried in Old Mississippi
City Cemetery, Gulfport, Harrison County, Mississippi.
Pendegrass, Pvt. William Jr.
William was born April 18, 1928. The KWE believes (but has
not proven) that he was related to Flora Pendegrass who died in
1934, and siblings Irene and Willie Mae from St. Clair County,
Illinois. William was a member of Heavy Tank Company, 7th
Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division when he contracted
hemorrhagic fever and died at the 48th MASH in Korea. He
is buried in Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery, Lemay,
Schafer, Pfc. Stanton
Stanton was from Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. He
was serving with the 40th Military Police Company, 40th Infantry
Division when he contracted hemorrhagic fever in the 48th MASH.
Simon, Cpl. George
George was born April 12, 1915 in Wolf Run, Ohio, a son of
Joseph Simon (died 1926) and Mary Urick Simon (1887-1972).
Mary later married Mike Valko. Joseph and Mary were
parents of seven children: George Simon, Ann M. Simon Roskos
(1917-1996), Michael Joseph Simon (1923-2000), and four other
sons. George was serving with Battery A, 37th Field
Artillery Battalion, 2nd Infantry Division when he died of
hemorrhagic fever at the 8228th MASH. He is buried in
Newton Township Cemetery West Side, Newton Falls, Trumbull
Smith, Pfc. Harold Walter
Harold was born October 1, 1929. He was serving with HQ
Company, 65th Infantry, 3rd Infantry Division, when he developed
hemorrhagic fever and was evacuated to the 48th Army Surgical
Hospital. He died there. Harold is buried in
Woodlawn Cemetery, Newfield, Tompkins County, New York.
Kenneth was a member of Battery A, 64th Field Artillery
Battalion, 25th Infantry Division. He developed hemorrhagic
fever and was evacuated to the 48 Mobile Army Surgical Hospital
where he died on December 5, 1953. He was born in 1931,
the son of Carl J. Sommer (1905-1987) and Emma Lockman Sommer.
(The KWE has not confirmed the name of his mother.)
Kenneth is buried in Beaver Cemetery and Mausoleum, Beaver,
Stevens, Cpl. J.E.
J.E. was born November 6, 1929, a son of Thomas S. Stevens
(1900-1964) and Mabel Ethel Williams Stevens (1891-1956).
His siblings were Doyle Harvey Stevens (1922-1987), Harry
Stevens, Clyde Stevens, and Olive Louise Stevens. J.E.
enlisted in the Army on April 25, 1951. He was serving in
the 702nd Ordnance Maintenance Battalion, 2nd Infantry Division
when he contracted hemorrhagic fever and died at the 8228th
MASH. This Choctaw American Indian is buried in Green
Hills Memorial Park, Rancho Palos Verdes, California.
Frank was born September 12, 1932. He was serving with
Headquarters Company, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry
Division when he contracted hemorrhagic fever and died at the
48th MASH. He is buried in Red Bank Cemetery, Haywood
County, North Carolina.
Thomas, Pvt. Edwin
Edwin was born May 25, 1927. He was serving in Company
L, 3rd Battalion, 27th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division
when he died of hemorrhagic fever at the 48th MASH. He is
buried in Provo City Cemetery, Provo, Utah.
Everitt James "Jim"
Everitt was born January 29, 1932 in Hackettstown, New
Jersey, a son of Frederick B. Tillou Jr. (1895-1951) and
Elizabeth Morrison Tillou (1894-1982). His siblings were
Donald "Donnie" (1929-1987), Grant (1927-1996), Charles S.
"Charlie" (1926-2016), Ruth Tillou Barlow, Howard, Mrs. Robert
T. (Julia Tillou) Hackett (died 2014), Mary and John.
Everitt was a member of Headquarters Company, 2nd Battalion, 7th
Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division. He contracted
hemorrhagic fever and was evacuated to the 48th Mobile Army
Surgical Hospital where he died. He is buried in Mount
Bethel Methodist Church Cemetery, Port Murray, New Jersey.
Torres-Ramirez, Pfc. Emilio
Emilio was born April 5, 1929 and was from San Sebastian,
Puerto Rico. He was serving with Company A, 1st Battalion,
65th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division, when he
contracted hemorrhagic fever and died in the 8228th MASH.
He is buried in the Municipal Cemetery, San Sebastian.
Winters, Pvt. Donald Edwin
Donald was born November 17, 1931, son of Douglass William
Winters and Dorothy Mary Winters. He was from the
Washington, DC area. He was the company clerk and records
keeper for Headquarters, Headquarters Company, 36th Engineer
Combat Group. He contracted hemorrhagic fever and died at
the 121st MASH. He is buried in Arlington National
Wiseman, Pfc. Donald Gilbert
Donald was born September 01, 1927. He was serving in
Company M, 3rd Battalion, 8th Cavalry, 1st Cavalry Division when
he contracted hemorrhagic fever and died in the 121st Evac
Hospital. He is buried in Golden Gate National Cemetery,
San Bruno, California.
Col. Constance J. Moore Article
Army Nursing Caring for Hemorrhagic Fever
during the Korean War
© Constance J. Moore
Colonel, ANC (Retired), ANCA Historian
Note: All credit for the following article goes to Col. Constance J.
In the fall of 1951, along the 38th parallel in Korea there was an
outbreak of an unknown febrile disease that caused illness-ravaged
soldiers to be taken to aid stations and hospitals. The acute,
self-limited infectious disease, called hemorrhagic fever, was
characterized by a tortuous multitude of acute symptoms, including
headache, nausea, blood seepage from weakened vascular walls,
delirium, and kidney failure. [Reference #1] Army nurses were
challenged to learn quickly how to care for these violently ill
patients in order to help save their lives.
24-Hour Urine Collection Hemorrhagic Fever Centers were set up at
hospitals such as the 45th Evacuation Hospital [Reference 2]
in Seoul or 48th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital (MASH) [Reference 3]
just northwest of Seoul. To monitor patients carefully, units were
staffed to give one-to-one nursing care. Nurses ensured that
patients maintained bed rest, since it slowed the nausea and pain.
They discovered the keystone of the therapy was fluid management
(hydration and electrolyte levels), and vital sign levels. Weights,
intakes and outputs were scrupulously monitored throughout the
course of the illness. To regulate body temperatures, patients were
sponged and given antipyretics. Trendelenberg bed positioning was
used to decrease the blood flow to the extremities. [Reference 4]
Since every patient developed some degree of kidney failure, fluid
restriction was required. Cases became critical when patients went
into kidney failure from septic shock. Patients deemed good
candidates for dialysis were quickly transferred to the 11th
Evacuation Hospital’s Renal Insufficiency Center where dialysis was
used to hopefully correct severe fluid overload, minimize the
effects of shock, and reverse the kidney failure. There were two
nurses assigned to the dialysis unit, monitoring three 8-hour
dialysis procedures round the clock. [Reference 5] They also
sterilized equipment and tubing, and trained newly assigned corpsmen
who were served with them. The dramatic changes in the conditions of
these patients was chronicled by Lieutenant Mary T. Burley: "The
first patient I saw who went on the artificial kidney was near
death. The next morning he sat up in bed and read a magazine!"
Once patients began to recover, Army nurses carefully managed the 8-
to 12-week process. Usually patients had lost 30-50 pounds so they
were given 5-7 meals each day as well as nutritional supplements and
progressive exercises to regain their weight and strength. During
this critical period, Nurses did their best to maintain patients’
morale and keep them occupied with entertainment, games and other
Army nurses took the initiative, making quick decisions, and
adopting innovative solutions to a broad range of medical-related
problems associated with the disease. Because of the care they
provided, many soldiers returning home with no ill effects of the
1.George Hoffman, “The Korean War’s Silent Killer
Strikes Again,” USA Today (Society for the Advancement of
2.Robert Markelz, “Hemorrhagic Fever 1. Medical
Care,” American Journal of Nursing, 56(1): 39.
Portable Surgical Hospital,” CBI Order of Battle Lineage and
(accessed April 29, 2011).
4.Katrina Johnson, Hemorrhagic Fever 2.
Nursing Care, American Journal of Nursing, 56(1): 41.
Maddux, “Dr. Paul Maddux,” Nephrology Oral History Project, (2007):
6.______, “48th Portable Surgical Hospital,” CBI Order of Battle
Lineage and History, http://www.cbi-history.com/part_vi_48th_surgical_hosp.html,
(accessed April 29, 2011).
7.Katrina Johnson, Hemorrhagic Fever 2.
Nursing Care, American Journal of Nursing, 56(1): 41.
Nurses Who Cared for Hemorrhagic Fever Patients (incomplete
"The Army nurses assigned to unique units also served with
heroism in difficult circumstances. Members of the 11th
Evacuation Hospital pioneered the art and science of renal
dialysis nursing. They were among the first nurses to support
patients with hemorrhagic fever on a first generation artificial
Quote from the US Government 60th Anniversary
"The Army Nurse Corps in the Korean War"
"At the 11th Evacuation Hospital in Korea, doctors used a
Kolff-Brigham Artificial Kidney to stop renal failure and
prevent death. As a result of improved resuscitation and
treatment practices, .5 percent of patients suffering from shock
stayed alive long enough only to end up with acute renal failure
because of myocardial potassium intoxication, fluid volume
overload, or both. Ninety percent of these patients died until
doctors started using dialysis in 1951—and the death rate
decreased to 53 percent. Nurses at the 11th Evacuation hospital
were among the first to use an artificial kidney machine to
treat patients with hemorrhagic fever."
Quote from "War History Online"
Marjorie J. Bennett
[KWE Note: All credit for the
following biography of Marjorie J. Bennett is given to the author
"Me. Here. Right Now: Genealogy for the Cooper, Smith, Smull,
Munson, Ripley, Owens, Holler, Leroy, Linsey, Miller, Lisk, and
other associated families"]
Trailblazing Women: Marjorie J Bennett, Army Nurse Corps
Sideroad: Munson/Woodington Family
Marjorie Bennett was the daughter of Arthur Bennett (1891-1934)
and Emma L Otto Bennett Cohoe (1894-1988) born 15 Jan 1919 in
Cassville, Grant County, Wisconsin. When she was 15, her father
died and her mother moved the family to Lancaster in Grant
County. Marjorie had two brothers who both served during World
War II: Robert Henry Bennett, who served in the US Army Air
Corps and Arthur Richard Bennett who served in the US Navy.
Marjorie completed her undergrad degree at Plattsburgh State
Teacher's College in Wisconsin, then attended Finley School of
Nursing in Dubuque, Iowa. She then attended the University of
Wisconsin for public health training. In 1945, she began her
work as the Assistant then Public Health Nurse for Grant County.
While attending school in 1944, she had joined the cadet corps
for the Women's Army Corps Reserves and asked to be activated in
1950. She left soon after for Ft Sam Houston, where the Army
nursing course was held and was commissioned as a 1st
Lieutenant. She graduated in July 1951.
After her training, she was sent to the Percy Jones Army
Hospital in Battle Creek, Michigan where she served briefly
before being assigned to the 8167th Tokyo Army Hospital during
the middle of the Korean Conflict, supporting soldiers whose
injuries were severe enough to have them transferred from the
Korean theatre. She then did war duty in Korea, assigned to the
11th Evac Hospital. This was fast-moving, tactical medicine, but
they were also among the first nurses to help patients with
hemorrhagic fever on a first generation artificial kidney
machine. The work of the doctors and nurses of the 11th would
influence future improvements in renal failure treatment for the
world. Only between 500-1,500 nurses served during the Korean
conflict (funny how they didn't really keep track), but the
women who served suffered the same hardships and trauma as their
male counterparts, without the resources to identify at treat
conditions like PTSD, especially in women. I'm sure all those
who served saw too much.
After her tours overseas, she returned to the States and was
assigned to Fort Benning Georgia's Army Hospital. She spent
3-1/2 years there before heading overseas again, this time to
Tripler Army Hospital in Honolulu. That had to be a sweet
Her last assignment was in Georgia, once again and she moved her
mother to her home after her stepfather's death. Marjorie
retired as a Lt Colonel in about 1970 but stayed in Augusta,
Georgia. Brother Robert lived nearby in Columbus, Georgia. Her
brother died in 1976. Marjorie remained in Augusta until after
her mother's 1988 death, residing in Marshall, Wisconsin until
her death in 1995.
Marjorie was an active member in the Retired Officers
Association, Retired Army Nurse Corps Association, Veterans of
Foreign Wars, and Disabled American Veterans. She picked a
career path completely apart from other women of her day and
served with distinction in peace and war.
Mattie Donnell Hicks
[KWE Note: All credit for the
following article goes to the Appalachia State University (North
Carolina Nursing History)}
Mattie Donnell Hicks: Korean War Nurse
After World War II ended in August 1945, the nation returned to
peaceful pursuits. On July 26, 1948, President Truman signed
Executive Order 9981, abolishing racial segregation in the armed
forces. In June 1950, North Korea, a small Asian nation of
little concern to most Americans, launched a surprise invasion
of its neighbor to the south. The United States was once again
at war, fighting with its ally South Korea. Many active duty
nurses were unexpectedly called to scene of battle. One of the
North Carolina nurses responding to this call was Mattie Hicks.
Mattie Donnell Hicks was born in Greensboro, North Carolina on
September 2, 1914, to John and Josephine Donnell. She was one of
ten children. Pursuing her childhood dream, after graduating
from the all African American Dudley High School, she enrolled
at the Grady Hospital School of Nursing in Atlanta, Georgia.
Three years later she earned her diploma and began her career at
a segregated, rural hospital in Gainesville, Georgia.
Hicks “wanted to do something different in going into the
military to try to help the soldiers with their wounds and all
that”. She joined the Army Nurse Corps on July 2, 1945 but
served only a few weeks until World War II ended in August 1945.
However, Hicks realized she enjoyed Army nursing so she
re-enlisted in March 1946 and stayed for twenty one years.
When the Korean War broke out, Hicks was assigned to the 11th
Evacuation Hospital in Wonju, Korea on the eastern battlefront.
During the war, approximately 540 Army Nurses served on the
ground in Korea. Seriously wounded and ailing troops were air
lifted to awaiting Navy hospital ships or evacuated to Army
Hospitals in Japan and the United States for more intense
treatment than was available in Korean MASH units or evacuation
hospitals. Many Army nurses served in the newly created Mobile
Army Surgical Hospitals (MASH) units close to the front. Hicks
and other nurses in Evacuation Hospitals took wounded soldiers
from the MASH units and provided longer term care. She recalled
in an oral history interview in 1999
We enjoyed our work very much. One thing, we were kept busy
because patients would be coming right off the battlefield
because they had the helicopters to pick them up, bring them
right to the hospital which saved a lot of their lives …
whenever a shipment would come in, you’d work … if they were in
real bad shape, they would ship them on right away. But if they
were not in too bad shape, they would stay right there and we’d
take care of them.
Each Evacuation Hospital had a specialty area. The 11th
Evacuation Hospital had a renal insufficiency unit and pioneered
the use of renal dialysis. Hicks and her colleagues at the 11th
Evacuation Hospital were among the first nurses to support
patients with hemorrhagic fever on the first generation of
artificial kidney machines. In addition to patients with renal
disease and battlefield wounds, Hicks and her colleagues
provided general car for soldiers and their family members with
a variety of ailments. She recalled civilians coming to the
hospitals with tuberculosis and gastro-intestinal distress.
“We had to run a tube down their throat and clean – and get all
the fluid and stuff out of their stomach. And you know, through
that tube live worms would come through, Live!”
When asked about her social situation in Korea, including
homesickness, cold temperatures, Spartan accommodations and
serving in one of the first integrated units in US armed forces
history, Hicks remembered, “when you’re afraid, as most of us
were, being in a theater where they were fighting and all that,
you kind of act like a family”.
After her tour in Korea, Hicks served wherever the Army Nurse
Corps needed her. Her postings included hospitals in Japan,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Germany and North Carolina. She
worked in medical surgical nursing and obstetrical nursing. She
earned many medals for her courage and service including the
World War II Victory Medal, the Korean Service Medal, the
National Defense Service Medal, and Army Commendation Medal, the
Armed Service Reserve Medal, a Meritorious Unit Citation and a
United Nations Service Medal.
In March, 1966 Hicks retired from the Army having earned the
rank of major. She returned home to Greensboro and built a home.
After her years of travel she was ready to spend time with her
extended family and childhood friends. She was dedicated to her
church spending many hours serving on committees, in the choir
and helping fellow congregants in need. Hicks passed away on
March 14, 2004.
Barbara Regan, 43rd Surgical
Hospital Mobile Army
[KWE Note: Barbara Regan,
native of Pensacola, Florida, served in the Army Nurse's Corps at
the 43rd Surgical Hospital Mobile Army for two years. All
credit for the following reference to hemorrhagic fever in Korea is given to Marketta Davis,
Journal, "MASH Nurse's Past, Present Mission"]
"Regan said her unit was always busy, especially
during the seasonal outbreak of hemorrhagic fever, a
life-threatening virus that was passed to humans from mice, rats
and fleas. Treatment involved fluids being injected into both
arms and legs as well as plasma transfusions.
But what sticks out in Regan's mind the most from the outbreak
is her unit's unintentional contribution resulting from a cat.
When she first got the hospital where the fever patients were
being treated, the nurse she relieved had two cats and wanted
Regan to take them for a short time. The nurse said the cats
were neutered but one unknowingly wasn't and ended up having
four kittens who inevitably became the community rat killers.
Word reached the hospital that an orphanage in Seoul, the
neighboring town to the hospital, was in need of cats to help
control the rats passing the hemorrhagic fever virus and the
hospital staff happily obliged. 'I was able to donate the
cats so they were useful,' Regan said."